Friday, July 17, 2020
Essay on he Effect of Globalization on Biodiversity The Effect of Globalization on Biodiversity May 16, 2019 in Ecology Abstract The emergence of negative globalization effects on biodiversity was detected in the 1970s. It was displayed in the overuse and overexploitation of resources of the environment due to the increased demand for the products and services. in an effort to accommodate the ever expanding population the increased deforestation has led to the extinction of habitats and various plant and animal species. Human activity is the biggest culprit to the loss of biodiversity. Corporations have become profit oriented and are showing little concern for the destructive nature that their plans of action are having on the environment. Governments have come up with various measures to ensure the conservation of the environment, the protection of the remaining plant and wildlife and has stiff penalties for corporations that are seen to manipulate the system by taking short cuts and eventually having disastrous results. Introduction Globalization is a term that has in the past decade received a lot of attention especially on the political fields and in the media. Many are not aware of the meaning of the word globalization. Primarily, it is a term used to flow in commerce, communication, technologies and so forth that are binding the countries on an international level. The movement of goods and services creates a situation in which the economies of different countries are connected. This has been going on for years but in recent times the magnitude at which the movement has been seen to grow is of enormous proportions. It has changed what was meant as a mean to create a market for goods and services on an international level. Industrialized countries continue to thrive at the expense of the developing countries that have become dependent on the market created by these central markets. Globalization has far reaching consequences, it links even the furthest of locations in a way that it can shape the happenings in one place based on events taking place thousands of miles away, and the reverse is true (Giddens, 1990).
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction: There are different types of businesses operating all around the world for improving the living standards of human kind, whereas construction industry is providing efficient structures for domestic living, travel and business purposes. The construction industry is considered very risky field of operation due to more physical labour required for completing the projects. There are different stages of construction projects, whereas large number of workforce is completing these stages of construction projects. The management of employees is important for any kind of organisation, whereas human resource management plays vital role for managing diverse employees in their organisation. There are different theories and models of human resource management, whereas some models are directly applicable for construction projects. Also, there are three key focuses of human resource management in construction industry such as human focus, resource focus and management focus. (Wilkinson et al., 2012 ). The management focus is important for managing both employees and resources in construction industry. Therefore, this report is providing complete information about different models and theories of HRM in general, whereas management focus is described in detail to analyse the merits and demerits of human resource management. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Human Resource Management in Construction Industry: Human resource management (HRM) plays vital role in construction projects by providing efficientShow MoreRelatedHuman Resource Management : A Rapid Rate Of Globalization Of The Construction Industry Across The World2703 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesRecent years have seen a rapid rate of Globalization of the Construction industry across the world. The increased migration of laborers, highly skilled workers, technicians, engineers, architects, managers and other categorized professionals migrating to various parts of the globe has resulted in the need to have separate Management (HRM) styles, in order to increase and improve productivity, efficiency, quality of work Ã¢â¬â within specific time-frames and stipulated budgets, while simultaneously workingRead MoreConstruction Industry And Its Impact On The World Essay980 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreported where fatalities occurred due to workers colliding with construction equipment or other objects on site in The United States. (Marks and Teize r 2012). The number of these accidents causing deaths in this year accounted for approximately 18% of the total construction deaths and 3% of the total workplace deaths experienced that year (Marks and Teizer 2012). Construction Industry is considered as one of the biggest industries in the world. It plays a vital role in the economic growth of anyRead MoreThe Real Estate And Construction Industry1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe real estate and construction industry has changed significantly over the past several years. It is an industry driven primarily by private investors; the presence of securitized real estate has increased considerably. Not unexpectedly, the influence of institutional investors on the real estate industry is formidable. They are beginning to experience a higher degree of scrutiny by investors, consultants and analysts, and are expected to deliver best in class service in all areas - from propertyRead MoreManaging People During The Construction Sector1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesINTRODUCTION Managing people employed in the construction sector is one of the most problematic areas from a HR point of view. As a result, the normal HRM viewpoints and practices applied in other businesses or industries is limited in this sector. The construction sector is now so Ã¢â¬Ëproject-managementÃ¢â¬â¢ sub-contracting based that the whole idea of HRM is amidst in the shadows. Indeed, the operational realities faced by construction organisations mean that all too often the needs of employees areRead MoreEnvironmental Pollution And Its Effects On The Environment1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfloods, landslides and the radon-containing soil, security area of construction site must without electromagnetic radiation hazards and hazards of fire, explosion, and toxic substances. Water saving we need to reduce the leakage rate of the water supply pipe network. Focus on strengthening the promotion and application of water-saving devices and improve the water recycling rate, actively promote water recycling, rainwater management. 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The high speed economic development and urbanization promote the rapid development of construction industry, expand the industrial scale, upgrade the industrial structure, and enhance the project quality. Promoting the sustainable development of construction industry in line withRead MoreVelina Jackson. Dr. Thomas Hennefer. Hrm 599 Human Resource1177 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHennefer HRM 599 Human Resource Management Capstone January 20, 2017 Ã¢â¬Æ' Ã¢â¬Æ' A Growing Small Business Lehigh Hanson is the company I chose as my business case. Lehigh Hanson has been supplying cement, aggregates, ready-mixed concrete, asphalt, and other building materials throughout the United States, Canada, and Germany. The high demands on performance and being open minded is what HR and management hold at high demands and they lead by example. To transition the Human Resource department in becomingRead MoreHow Happiness Can Improve Productivity788 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages(1) INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Being happy is vital to most people, and happiness has been found to be a highly valued goal in most societies (Diener 2000). Happiness, in the form of joy, appears in every typology of basic human emotions. Feeling happy is fundamental to human experience, and most people are at least mildly happy much of the time (Diener and Diener 1996). As people are the greatest asset for any organization, being happy is very important to people and it has been found to be a valuableRead MoreAn Innovative Action Oriented Hr Partner1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaction-oriented HR Partner with market expertise than spans more than 5 years across multiple industry sectors, from major EPCMs through to RTOs and NGOs. Able to provide both the hands-on and strategic guidance needed to deliver HR frameworks that support business objectives, major projects and operational needs. Extensive knowledge of IR/ER, including the setting up of associated frameworks through to advising management, and working in cl ose collaboration with unions. Excellent communication skills and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
It is perhaps one of the most frequently asked questions of all time: if there are gods who have control over humansÃ¢â¬â¢ lives, why do they allow good followers to suffer? How can there be any justice in that kind of world? Philosophers and thinkers like Seneca and authors of the Bible have debated and written about these questions since ancient times. Perhaps because hardships affect every person, many people continue to debate the same topics today. Seneca writes extensively about the topic of suffering in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"On Providence,Ã¢â¬ which is contained in The Stoic Philosophy of Seneca. Likewise, Paul writes about how to face hardships in his letters to the Romans and the Corinthians, and the book of Job in the Old Testament containsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although they provide different rationalizations for why gods allow humans to suffer, Seneca and writers in the Old Testament and New Testament all agree that suffering is always beneficial in the end. The writers agree that without suffering, humans would not be able to live successful lives. Seneca writes, Ã¢â¬Å"[Hardships] benefit the individuals to whose lot they fall, and, in the second place, they benefit the whole body of mankindÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"On Providence,Ã¢â¬ 32). Humans are at least partially responsible for this positive outcome, however. He further writes, Ã¢â¬Å"[Good men] must not shrink from hardship and difficulty or complain of fate; they should take whatever befalls in good part and turn it to advantageÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"On Providence,Ã¢â¬ 30). By identifying the greatest men who are best able to turn their sufferings into positives, the entire community will improve, according to Seneca. Without suffering hardships, humans are not able to live the best lives possible for them. Seneca uses soldiers as an example; Ã¢â¬Å"[T]hough those who returned from the fray unhurt may have fought as well,Ã¢â¬ he writes, Ã¢â¬Å"the man who brings back a wound is more respectedÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"On Providence,Ã¢â¬ 37). In life, those who face the hardest struggles and still live productive lives should be honored and stand as an example to the whole community. Similar to SenecaÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that all suffering is beneficial, Christian writings in both the Old Testament and the New Testament
A large economic downturn in East Asia threatens to end its nearly 30 year run of high growth rates. The crisis has caused Asian currencies to fall 50-60%, stock markets to decline 40%, banks to close, and property values to drop. The crisis was brought on by currency devaluations, bad banking practices, high foreign debt, loose government regulation, and corruption. We will write a custom essay sample on Economic Crisis in East Asian Country or any similar topic only for you Order Now Due to East AsiaÃ¢â¬ s large impact on the world economy, the panic in Thailand, Indonesia, Korea, and other Asian countries has prompted other countries to worry about the affect on their own economies and offer aid to the financially troubled nations (Sanger 1). The East Asian crisis has affected almost all of the Asian ations, but the three hardest hit countries are Thailand, Indonesia, and South Korea. The panic began in Thailand in May of 1997 when speculators, worried about ThailandÃ¢â¬ s slowing economy, excessive debt, and political instability devalued the baht as they fled for market-driven currencies like the American dollar. IndonesiaÃ¢â¬ s economy soon fell soon after when the rupiah hit a record low against the U. S. dollar. Indonesia is plagued by more than $70 billion worth of bad debts and a corrupt and inefficient government. Thailand and Indonesia also suffer from being overbuilt during real estate booms that Reven2 were the result of huge influxes of cash by optimistic foreign investors. South Korea faltered under the weight of its huge foreign debt, decreasing exports, and weakening currency (Lochhead 4-5). Other major countries touched by the crisis are Japan, China, Malaysia, and the Philippines. JapanÃ¢â¬ s economy is burdened by $300 billion in bad bank loans and a recession. Chinese banks may carry bad banks loans of up to $1 trillion. The banks lend 66% of ChinaÃ¢â¬ s investment capital to state-run industries that only produce 12% of ChinaÃ¢â¬ s industrial output (Manning 2). Malaysia and the Philippines are both faced with devalued currencies and lowered stock markets The implications of the Asian financial crisis are many. A declining Asian economy will reduce demand for U. S. and other countriesÃ¢â¬ exports. The devalued currencies of East Asia will make Asian imports seen cheap and will lead to increased American imports, thus increasing our trade deficit (Lochhead 2). A worldwide banking mergency could result if the embattled Asian economies failed to pay back their loans to the U. S. and other countries (Duffy 2). If the Asian economies fall further, in a desire to raise cash, they might sell the hundreds of billion dollars of U. S. treasuries they now own, leading to higher interest rates and an American recession (Lacayo 2). An article in the Economist reported that the Asian economic turmoil and the layoffs that may result, could instigate increased discontent and possibly give rise to violent strikes, riots, and greater political instability (1-2). Reven 3 Since the financial tumult causes instability in the world market, several solutions have been proposed designed to restore the health of the Asian economy. The International Monetary Fund is offering $60 billion in aid packages to Thailand, Indonesia, and South Korea (Lacayo 1). The aid will be used for converting short-term debt to long-term debt and to keep currencies from falling lower in the world market (Passell 2). Lower currency values make repaying loans to other nations more difficult (Sanger 1 ). The aid packages are tied to measures that will ensure that the recipient countries reform their economies. Some of the measures the nations must follow are increasing taxes to decrease budget deficits, ending corruption, increasing banking regulation, improving accounting information so investors can make better decisions, closing insolvent banks, selling off inefficient state enterprises, and increasing interest rates to slow growth and encourage stability (Lacayo 3). Hopefully these market reforms will allow East Asia to improve its economic outlook. Since most of the Asian nations have balance budgets, low inflation, cheap labor, pro-business governments, and high savings rates, the long-term outlook for these countries is very good (Marshall 1). The financial crisis, instead of destroying the Asian tigers, will merely serve as a much needed lesson in debt management, orderly growth, competent accounting practices, and efficient government. Considering the size of Asias contribution to the world economy, a rapid recovery will be greatly anticipated. How to cite Economic Crisis in East Asian Country, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Merchant of Venice Essay Many people are villainous in the way they act, and their villainous acts may be rooted in the desire to destroy others, or in the hopes of elevating themselves. Many people may only act "villainous" in reaction to the way they have been treated in the past. Shylock the Jew is the villain or antagonist in the play The Merchant of Venice. Shylock mistreats Antonio the Christian, his daughter, Jessica and Launcelot. The first person Shylock mistreats, is Launcelot. He mistreats this servant by complaining behind Launcelot's back of his laziness. Shylock says, "The patch is kind enough, but a huge feeder, Snail-slow in profit, and he sleeps by day More than the wildcat. Drones hive not with me.. ..His borrowed purse." 1 Shylock also acts villainous towards Launcelot by acting belligerent towards him. "Who bids thee call? I do not bid thee call." 2 Shylock mistreats this man because of his poverty, and because Launcelot is socially beneath him. You also start to wonder about how fair Shylock is, when Launcelot is deciding whether or not to leave him. Shylock also mistreats his own daughter, Jessica. He mistreats her by keeping her as a captive in her own house, not letting her out, and not letting her hear the Christian music around her. He orders her to: "Lock up my doors; and when you hear the drum... ..But stop my house's ears-I mean casements. Let not the sound of shallow fopp'ry enter My sober house." 3 Jessica considers her home to be hell, and she calls Launcelot, a "merry little devil". She even states that her father is Satan. Shylock also mistreats his own daughter, by not loving her enough, even to the point where he complains about all of the money he's spending in a search to find her. "Why, there, there, there, there! A diamond gone cost me two thousand ducats in Frankford! The curse.. ..ill luck stirring but what lights o' my shoulders; no sighs but o' my breathing; no tears but o' my shedding."4 Salerio makes the audience wonder about Shylock, when he raves about when Shylock was calling out, "Oh my ducats, my daughter, my ducats, my daughter.." This makes you wonder which he misses the most. This proves that he mistreats, even his own daughter. He values his money more than his own blood. Shylock mistreats Antonio. He does so by talking behind Antonio's back, and he reveals his hatred of Antonio, when he says, "How like a fawning publican he looks! I hate him for he is a Christian; But more for that...Cursed be my tribe If I forgive him!" 5 Shylock feels justified in exacting revenge for all the ills Antonio causes him. He then draws up an unbelievable bond. He blames Antonio for all of his problems, even his race's problems are blamed on people like Antonio, and he feels Christians have persecuted his race when he says, "To bait fish withal. If it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge...The villainy you teach me will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction." 6 He shows that he will copy the example of Christians. Shylock becomes the true villain when he atkes Antonio to court. These actions prove that Antonio is mistreated by Shylock, the villain. Shylock is the villain of The Merchant of Venice. He mistreats too many people, and then asks for mercy in a court. Shylock is mad for revenge towards all Christians, especially Antonio. He is such a villain that even his daughter and servant are eager to escape him. Villains are oftenly antagonists in story plots and normally are a threat to the main character. Villains normally have motives behind their evil doings. Endnotes: 1. Shakespeare, William. Merchant of Venice. (Washington Square Press, New York, 1957) p. 30 2. Ibid p. 29 3. Ibid p. 30 4. Ibid p. 46 5. Ibid p. 13 6. Ibid p. 44
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Article Review; Sociality as a defensive response to the threat of loss By Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell
Article Review; Sociality as a defensive response to the threat of loss By Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell This article gives an analysis of how individuals use sociality as a defensive response to the risk of loss. This article applies the aspect of the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma to address the problem. The prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma is one of the major problems in the game theory, which helps to understand the reason why two people will not cooperate even though it may be their best interests to do that.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Article Review; Sociality as a defensive response to the threat of loss By Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This analysis seeks to find out how people generally react to the risks that usually occurs in social relationships. This article begins by identifying the fact that although people do cooperate, defections also take place often (Tim, Mikhail and John 1). The main argument of the article revolves around the idea that people will be more will ing to enter into a relationship where the game payoffs are framed as losses rather than gains (Tim, Mikhail and John 1). In other words, this article proposes that people are now more concerned in making decisions which will shield them from dipping into loss rather than gaining. The authors have begun with a critical literature review where they have summarized the previous study which has been conducted on the field. Previous study has revealed that in some cases, people cooperate in the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma games where they would choose against their interests. Such decisions lead to maximization of the social welfare. Tim, Mikhail and John also emphasized on the fact that universal cooperation is very rare (1). This implies that an individual is usually faced with the challenge of concluding on how others are going to decide in the prisoner dilemmaÃ¢â¬â¢s game. Therefore, an individual will be faced by the dilemma of whether to enter into such game or other wise refrain from entering. They are also faced with the dilemma of choosing the person with whom to enter into the game. Tim, Mikhail and John have also recognized the fact that the previous literature has barely mentioned anything to do with how people will react to the danger of going into a prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma games (2). They emphasized on the idea of risk tolerance. Tim, Mikhail and John also discussed about the risk aversion. For instance, one should not trust strangers. However, if we manage to gather enough information about them we will be able to understand their behaviour. Otherwise, people will refrain from entering into the games with people for whom they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have information. People tends to be risk tolerant when the payoff involves losses but risk averse if the payoff in the game involves specific gains (Tim, Mikhail and John 2).Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn Mor e This article has also outlined the utility function. This involves the objective values like lives lost or saved are plotted on the horizontal axis, subjective utility on the vertical axis while the status quo is plotted at the intersection (Tim, Mikhail and John 3). In this case, the function plotted in the quadrant on the upper right side can be identified with the economic theory of diminishing marginal utility for every life saved. On the other hand, the utility function in the left quadrant in the lower side demonstrates steeply declining losses or the lost lives (Tim, Mikhail and John 3). This function can be analyzed based on its nature. In this case, one unit loss in the status quo will hurt more than the gain. In other words, for every extra unit of status quo lost, an individual will be hurt more than in the preceding unit. This article has extended on the traditional expected utility which just differentiates losses and gains. It is based on the assumption that probability of the occurrence is the most appropriate measure for risky outcomes. The prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma has a significant implication in the concept of sociality. In most cases, people are involved in exchange relationships with each other. The article has identified the fact that the decision made by individuals to enter or not to enter in a relationship is based on the empirical regularity they document (Tim, Mikhail and John 2). Therefore if all other factors remain constant, it is expected that individuals will tend to take the social risks only in the cases where the payoffs are based on losses rather than gains. This concept can also be applied in political arena. In voting, the voter is faced with a decision to make. For instance, they gauge the available alternatives and choose the best (Plott and Levine 148). The concept of the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma can clearly be explained through a situation where the decisions of two prisoners affect the other. For instance, we have two suspects who are arrested by the police and then confined in two different places. It is assumed that the police do not have enough evidence on the crime the prisoners committed. Then, the police visit each separately. Both prisoners are then given same deal. In case one prisoner testifies against the other and the other remains silent, then the one who remains silent gets one year term jail while the other is released.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Article Review; Sociality as a defensive response to the threat of loss By Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, if both prisoners choose not to betray each other and therefore remain silent, then they will both be sentenced for only one month in jail. However, if each prisoner betrays the other, they will get a three months jail sentence each. In this case, every prisoner must choose either to defect or to co operate. That is, they have the opportunity. In this case scenario, it is clear that there is one choice which will maximize the interests of each of the prisoners. The dilemma is now how each of the prisoners is going to act. If the two suspects are only concerned about minimizing the time they stay in jail, they can either choose to betray or to cooperate with the other. This results into a non-zero sum game because each player may cooperate or defect (Blum and Booth 56). In the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma game, each of the participants is determined to maximize their own payoff with no concern on other personÃ¢â¬â¢s payoff. However, both players may choose to betray each other. When both prisoners play defective, the decisions lead to a Pareto sub-optimal solution (Tutor2. par 6). In this situation, every prisoner makes a rational decision. That is, a decision which maximizes their gains (Rapoport and Chammah 124). In the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma, the most dominant choice is def ection. Therefore, the only equilibrium solution in this case remains the fact that all the players to defect. This is because the players are assumed to behave rationally (Barash par 4). However, the compensation would have been relatively higher in case both the prisoners decide to cooperate in their decisions. On the side of the iterated prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma, this game is played again and again. Unlike in the classical case, the prisoner has the opportunity to punish the other for not cooperating in the previous cases (Edgar 98). According to the economic theory, both players will defect in subsequent cases regardless of the number of times the participants plays. Cooperation can only be equilibrium when they are allowed to play random number of times or unlimited number of times. However, the problem of betrayal can easily be mitigated through intimidation by threatening to punish those who are engaged in defection (Heylighen par 3). The prisonersÃ¢â¬â¢ dilemma has a sign ificant implication in politics. This is because the actions of individual politicians have a significant impact on others. In some cases, politicians may benefit for cooperation and lose for not doing so (Paul 309). In some cases, politicians do cooperate and gain while in others fails to do so and consequently lose.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The principle of the prisoners can also be applied in other social contexts. According to Myagkov and Orbell, when people are assumed to be free to choose the people with whom to enter into the games with and also to defect or to cooperate can be useful in modeling of markets (3). In such a case, individuals may decide to avoid relationships which they perceive as exploitive and for a more attractive relationship. This may provider an incentive of not defecting. In politics, the concept of the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma can also be applicable. For instance, In case two candidates are free to decide on the policy positions in order to optimize the number of their votes, both will tend to choose the policies which they think will maximize their share (Congleton 4). However, the decision made by one politician has a significant impact on the other. This can also be demonstrated by the rational choice theory which implies that every individual will trend to make decisions which maximizes their interests (The New York Times February 26, 2000. par 2). This is also applicable at the international level. This can clearly be described through the realism theory which describes how states do or think in an effort to secure their interests (Squidoo par 5). The game of the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma has a significant implication in the field of economics. For instance, advertisement can form a good example of the political dilemma. For instance, there was time when advertisement was illegal in the United State. The decisions made by the individual companies had a significant impact on the other companies. In other words, the success of every company was determined by the decision made by others. During this period, the success of company X is to some extent determined by the advertisement decisions made by company Y. On the other hand, the returns from the advertisement conducted by firm Y is influenced by the advertisement measures carried by company X. However, in case th e two companies choose to advertise simultaneously at the same time, the effect neutralizes itself and the sales remains constant. Nevertheless, there are increased costs incurred through the advertisement activities. However, in case one company decides not to advertise, then the other one will gain significantly from advertisement. Another case of political dilemma can be illustrated through the case of drugs in spot. Schneier demonstrates a situation where decisions by various players to use performance enhancing drugs affect the performance of others (par 2). In this case, the most feasible level of advertisement for the company X will be determined by advertisement undertaken by company Y. In this case, both companies can gain significantly if they choose to cooperate. For instance, they can both reduce their operational costs in case they decide to advertise at a level below the equilibrium (Milgrom 306). In case all the companies cooperate and decide not to conduct any advert isement, then every company will reduce its expenses and the profits will generally increase in the industry. The principle of the game of the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma can also be applied in the pricing among cartels. In some cases, a number of companies may decide to set their prices at a certain level. In this case, a company may choose not to adhere to this regulation which implies that they defect. They may also decide to cooperate and keep their prices at the agreed level. The companies which defect in this case gain profits at the expense of others (Hang 59). Conniff (2001) observed that risky behaviour can also be revealed among other animals. For instance, this can be demonstrated in a phenomenon where an antelope jumps high up into the air when chased by a cheetah. However, it would be more reasonable for the antelope to apply all their energy trying to run horizontally as far as possible. There are also some animals which usually tend to dance just in front of their preda tors before dodging away. In conclusion, this article has given a clear analysis of the concept of the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma games and its implication in social, political and economic context. It is based on the principle that individuals will tend to act in such a way that they maximize their interests. However, these decisions may in one way or another affect others. Barash, David. Ã¢â¬ Rogue Elephants Play Congressional Chicken.Ã¢â¬ Chronicle, July 4, 2011. 4th Aug. 2011. http://chronicle.com/blogs/brainstorm/congressional-chicken/37005 Blum, Jonathan and Booth Rupert. The Prisoners Dilemma. U.S.A.: Powys Books, 2005. Congleton, Roger. Ã¢â¬Å"The Median Voter Model.Ã¢â¬ Uoregon, 4th Aug. 2011. http://pages.uoregon.edu/myagkov/medianvot.pdf Conniff Richard. Why We Take Risks. DISCOVER .Vol. 22 No. 12Ã December 2001. Edgar David. The Prisoners Dilemma. London: Nick Hern Books, 2002. Hang Amelia. Prisoners Dilemma. UK: Lulu.com, 2003. Heylighen Francis. Ã¢â¬Å"The Prisoners Dilemma.Ã¢â¬ Pespmc1, 1995. 4th Aug. 2011. http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/PRISDIL.html Myagkov Misha and Orbell John. Ã¢â¬Å"Mindreading and Manipulation in an Ecology of PrisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dilemma Games: Laboratory Experiments.Ã¢â¬ Phoenix, 4th Aug. 2011. http://phoenix.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/pol-sci-rational.htm Rapoport Anatol and Chammah Albert. Prisoners Dilemma: A Study In Conflict And Cooperation. Canada: University of Michigan Press, 1965. Schneier Bruce. Ã¢â¬Å"Drugs: Sports Prisoners Dilemma.Ã¢â¬ Wired, 4th Aug. 2011. wired.com/politics/security/commentary/securitymatters/2006/08/71566 Paul Milgrom. The Evolution of Cooperation. Journal of Economics Volume 15, Number 2, 1984, 305Ã¢â¬â309. Plott Charles R. and Levine Michael E. A model of Agenda Influence on Committee Decisions. The American Economic Review, Vol. 68, No. 1. (March 1978), pp. 146-160. Squidoo. Ã¢â¬Å"Realism.Ã¢â¬ Squidoo, 2011. 4th Aug. 2011. squidoo.com/realism The New York Times Feb ruary 26, 2000. Ã¢â¬Å"Political Scientists Debate Theory of `Rational ChoiceÃ¢â¬ . Phoenix, 2000. 4th Aug. 2011. http://phoenix.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/pol-sci-rational.htm Tim Johnson, Mikhai Myagkov and John Orbell. Sociality as a Defensive Response to the Threat of Loss. Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. 2001. Tutor2. Ã¢â¬Å"Oligopoly Game Theory.Ã¢â¬ Tutor2u, 2011. 4th Aug. 2011. http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-oligopoly-game-theory.html
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Amphoteric Oxide Definition in Chemistry An amphoteric oxide is an oxide that can act as either an acid or base in a reactionÃ to produce a salt and water. Amphoterism depends on the oxidation states available to a chemical species. Because metals have multiple oxidation states, they form amphoteric oxides and hydroxides. Amphoteric Oxide Examples Metals that display amphoterism include copper, zinc, lead, tin, beryllium, and aluminum. Al2O3 is an amphoteric oxide. When reacted with HCl, it acts as a base to form the salt AlCl3. When reacted with NaOH, it acts as an acid to form NaAlO2.Typically, oxides of medium electronegativity are amphoteric. Amphiprotic Molecules Amphiprotic molecules are a type of amphoteric species that donate or accept H or a proton. Examples of amphiprotic species include water (which is self-ionizable) as well as proteins and amino acids (which have carboxylic acid and amine groups). For example, the hydrogen carbonate ion can act as an acid: HCO3Ã¢ËâÃ OHÃ¢ËâÃ Ã¢â â CO32Ã¢ËâÃ H2O or as a base: HCO3Ã¢ËâÃ H3OÃ Ã¢â â H2CO3Ã H2O Keep in mind, while all amphiprotic species are amphoteric, not all amphoteric species are amphiprotic. An example is zinc oxide, ZnO, which does not contain a hydrogen atom and cannot donate a proton. The Zn atom can act as a Lewis acid to accept an electron pair from OHÃ¢Ëâ. Related Terms The word amphoteric derives from the Greek word amphoteroi, which means both. The terms amphichromatic and amphichromic are related, which apply to an acid-base indicator that yields one color when reacted with an acid and a different color when reacted with a base. Uses of Amphoteric Species Amphoteric molecules that have both acidic and basic groups are called ampholytes. They are primarily found as zwitterions over a certain pH range. Ampholytes may be used in isoelectric focusing to maintain a stable pH gradient.